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1) Meaning of the Child:-
The meaning of the children and the rights of the children. Definition of the rights of the children.
Children’s rights were recognized after the 1st World war, with the adoption of the Declaration of Geneva, in 1924. The process of recognition of children’s rights continued thanks to the UN, with the adoption of the Declaration of children’s rights in 1959.The recognition of the child’s interest and his rights become real on 20 November 1989 with the adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child which is the first international legally binding text recognizing all the fundamental rights of the child.
Children’s rights are human rights. They protect the child as a human being. As human rights, children’s rights are constituted by fundamental guarantees and essential human rights.Children’s rights recognize fundamental guarantees to all human beings the right to life, the non-discrimination principle, the right to dignity through the protection of physical and mental integrity (protection against slavery, torture and bad treatments, etc.)
Children’s rights are civil and political rights, such as the right to identity, the right to a nationality, etc. Children’s rights are economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to education, the right to a decent standard of living, the right to health, etc. Children’s rights include individual rights the right to live with his parents, the right to education, the right to benefit from a protection, etc. Children’s rights include collective rights rights of refugee and disabled children, of minority children or from autochthonous groups.
“Humanity has to do its best for the child.” Declaration of Geneva.
2) Definition of the child:-
Etymologically, the term “child” comes from the Latin in fans which means” the one who does not speak “. For the Roman, this term designates the child from its birth, up to the age of 7 years.
This notion evolved a lot through centuries and cultures to finally designate human being from birth until adulthood. But this conception of the child was wide and the age of the majority varied from a culture to another.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 defines more precisely the term “child”:
“[…] a child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier”